Bladder cancer ranked eighth of the commonest male cancer in Hong Kong 2001. This, bladder cancer tends to present early, thanks to the screening test for the presence of blood in urine (hematuria). Blood in urine without pain is a common finding. The initial diagnosis requires a endoscopic examination of the bladder (cystoscopy), with biopsy of the tumour.. When proven, further staging investigations such as a CT scan is required. For early and non invasive bladder cancer, additional courses of chemotherapy/ immunotherapy for local delivery into the bladder may be necessary for disease control. Subsequent regular endoscopic examination of the bladder is mandatory. For invasive bladder cancer, the therapeutic options are total removal of the bladder or radical radiotherapy. Which is the best option depends on the type of bladder cancer, the age of the patient and the condition of the patient.
Benign tumours in the kidneys are rare and include adenoma, angioma and angiomyolipoma. Most tumours in kidneys are malignant and so it is a good rule to treat all tumours in the kidneys which are recognized clinically as malignant. These include renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and other rare tumours like lymphoma. Among these, renal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignant tumour. It usually presents with haemturia, loin discomfort but sometimes can be very silent and presents with symptoms from metastatsis. Nephroblastoma usually occurs in children with age less than four. Due to the common use of ultrasound and CT scan, more and more kidney cancers are incidentally found. The therapy of choice is radical surgery removing the entire kidney, which is either open or laparoscopic. In selected cases, organ sparing surgery (partial removal of the kidney) is possible.
Prostate cancer is becoming more common and its incidence in Hong Kong is on the rise. In 2018, prostate cancer ranked third out of ten commonest male cancers in Hong Kong.
Testicular cancer is a relatively rare cancer and account for about 1-1.5% of all cancers in men. It commonly affects young men in the third and fourth decades of life. It is treated by excision and are very responsive to radiation and chemotherapy and so in these days testicular cancers show excellent cure rates.
Penile cancer is an uncommon malignant disease. Social and cultural habits are important factors. The earlier penile cancer is found, the better. If diagnosis is delayed, metastasis can occur.