Stone Diseases

Urinary tract stones are common. They may occur in the kidney, ureter or bladder. The symptoms are variable and include loin pain, infection and haematuria. Sometimes the stones are silent and are only discovered on a radiograph.

Types of stones:

1. Calcium oxalate stones
85% of urinary tract stones are calcium oxalate stones. They can be seen easily radiologically. Patients with this type of stone should avoid taking food rich in oxalate and these include peanuts, coffee, tea, strawberry, spinach.
2. Uric acid stones
5-15% of urinary tract stones. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent and is difficult to be detected in a plain radiograph. Patients should avoid food rich in urate like seafood, red meat, kidney, liver, beans etc.
3. Phosphate stones
Usually calcium phosphate but sometimes combine with ammonium and magnesium. Occurs in alkaline urine and can grow to a very large size.
4. Cystine stones
It is rare and occurs in patients with genetic abnormality in cystine transport.